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Relevant tariff policies and subsidy measures in major rubber-producing countries and non-producing countries

  First, natural rubber non-producing countries

  It is understood that most of the countries with a shortage of natural rubber resources abroad encourage domestic rubber companies to make full use of foreign natural rubber resources. At present, Japan, Australia and India and other countries have accelerated overseas investment, and the Japanese government has even provided discounted interest loans for enterprises, and imported into China with low or zero tariffs for use, intending to occupy as much of the world's natural rubber resources as possible. Second, natural rubber producers and consumers of one by one India

  (i) Production and consumption of natural rubber in India (self-sufficiency).

  India has tightened restrictions on natural rubber exports in recent years and is no longer an exporter of natural rubber. It is predicted that India will surpass the United States to become the world's second largest consumer of natural rubber in the next few years, and it should be said that the two countries have similar backgrounds in natural rubber.

  (2) India's natural rubber tariff policy

  From India's independence in l947 until the end of the 2O century, the import of natural rubber has been banned or severely restricted; Even with India's open NEP since 1991, natural rubber imports are still restricted. In the 21st century, in accordance with the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), India lifted restrictions on the import of natural rubber from April 1, 2001. Thereafter, the Indian government is not allowed to impose any quantitative restrictions on the import of natural rubber; Domestic industries can only be protected through tariffs. Under the Government of India's Finance Act 2002, India imposes a 70% tariff on natural rubber. Currently, the Indian government has committed a 25% import duty on solid natural rubber. This rate will be further reduced in accordance with WTO principles.   In addition, it is worth mentioning that India has also invested in the natural rubber industry in Southeast Asian rubber-producing countries and strived to develop overseas resources.

  (3) India's natural rubber support policy

  Through government support measures, India has kept the price of imported rubber 10% higher than that of domestic rubber. Since 2001, the export of natural rubber has been stimulated by providing export subsidies, which soared from 3,700 tons in 2001 to 65,000 tons in 2004, and in 2005, the Indian government decided to reduce subsidies by 50% while tightening restrictions on rubber exports.

  Second, the main natural rubber producing countries are Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia

  (1) Production in the main producing countries

  At present, Asia is the world's main natural rubber producing area, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia are the world's three main traditional natural rubber producing countries, and the output of the three countries accounts for about 69% of the world's total output.

  (2) Export utilization

  Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam are regular exporters of natural rubber. In 2000, 83 per cent of Thailand's production was sold on the export market, 93 per cent from Indonesia, 57 per cent of Malaysia's total production and more than 90 per cent from Viet Nam. These countries have a very stable sales chain and have regular customers in the international market.

  (3) Tariffs and foreign trade policies

  Under the CAFTA (China-ASEAN Free Trade Area) rules, Thailand's natural rubber has achieved zero tariffs, but the other natural rubber in the form of sheets, strips (except for smoked film and technical classification natural rubber) and balata gum, the implementation tax rate of gutapo gum is reduced to 20% in 2005, 12% in 2007, 5% in 2009, and zero tariff by 2010.

  Malaysia's natural rubber imports have achieved zero tariffs.

  Indonesia has imposed a tariff of 5 per cent and will achieve zero tariffs until 2009.

  The Philippines and Vietnam have yet to implement tax cuts.

  2. Control the export of natural rubber In recent years, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and other major rubber-producing countries in Southeast Asia have actively promoted industrialization, and rubber consumption has increased significantly, while measures have been introduced to restrict the export of natural rubber in a planned manner.   In 2002, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, for the benefit of their respective rubber producers, held a meeting of ministers of agriculture in Bali, Indonesia, and decided to establish an international rubber cooperation group by consensus, adopt the implementation of supply management plans, reduce exports, establish joint companies to manage the natural rubber market, and stabilize the price of natural rubber at a price favorable to producers. The target price for 2004 is set at llOO USD/mt. Recently, the governments of Vietnam and India have joined the alliance company, aiming to jointly raise and stabilize international prices and form an international price union

  In order to make the export trade of natural rubber more competitive, the main natural rubber producing countries adopt a variety of subsidies and support policies to promote the sustainable development of their natural rubber industry within the scope permitted by WTO rules.

  Natural rubber is one of Thailand's pillar industries, with about 6 million people engaged in the rubber industry, accounting for 10% of the total population, and the Thai government attaches great importance to the industry.

  (1) Encourage farmers to plant rubber, provide low-interest loans to rubber farmers, provide free technical training and a series of preferential measures.

  (2) There is no agricultural tax and agricultural and forestry specialty tax in Thailand, and the same is true for natural rubber cultivation. On the contrary, in order to encourage the cultivation of rubber, the Thai government collects export taxes from the export link of natural rubber to set up a natural rubber renewal subsidy fund (export tax collection standards are: when the market price is not higher than 30Ba/Kg according to the standard of O.9Ba/Kg, when the market price is between 30-35Ba/Kg according to the standard of 1.2Ba/Kg, when the market price is 35Ba/Kg high according to the standard of 1.4Ba/Kg (4Ba is about RMB l). The extraction of export tax has played a long-term and stable role in the renewal of rubber plantations, management and scientific and technological research and development.   The 0ffice of Rubber Replanting Aid Funds (ORRAF) was established in 1960 by the Thai government, a state-owned agency under the Ministry of Agriculture with an ORRAF Council, 25 provincial offices and 52 district offices. ORRAF is funded by rubber export taxes, of which 85% is used for rubber garden renewal, 10% for administration and 5% for research and development. ORRAF has three specific forms of assistance, one is the supply of base table production materials, such as fertilizers, herbicides, etc.: the other is direct financial support, the standard of which is 6800 Ba/Lei for glue renewal (Note: 6.25 Rai = 1 hectare), 4621.5 Ba/Lei for new rubber plantations, and 6800 Ba/Lei for planted fruits.

  (3) Exempt the rubber planting industry from taxation, implement the purchase of rubber at a guidance price, provide free rubber product quality inspection, and support the establishment of central rubber processing plants by rubber farmers' cooperative organizations.

  (4) Investment in natural rubber production can enjoy preferential investment policies. For economically underdeveloped provinces in the south, investment in agricultural projects can enjoy the following preferential policies: exemption from import taxes on machinery and equipment; Exempt from corporate income tax for 8 years, and 5O% of the above tax for 5 consecutive years after expiration, etc. Obtain a loan from the World Bank or its financial institutions for rubber production. Interest is borne entirely by the State.

  2. Indonesia and Malaysia

  The Indonesian government has also been formulating some corresponding development plans to help smallholder rubber farmers improve production technology and management level, and provide financial credit and technical support. The Indonesian government earmarks funds to renew state-owned rubber plantations at a rate of 5% per year. Private small rubber plantations are renewed at a rate of 1% per year, and their funding is mainly obtained from the renewal of wood by small rubber plantation owners.

  Malaysia has invested 1 billion ringgit (US$263 million) in bank deposits in the renewal of rubber trees to ensure that Malaysia's natural rubber production is steadily decreasing.

  ----Excerpt from China Hose Tape Network

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